MANNING, G - Threnody for String Orchestra Op. 31

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Year of composition
Difficult (Grades 7+)
11 minutes
Classical music
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The title of this work for string orchestra is derived and taken from the Greek thr�"nos, �wailing� and oide, ode, and originates from the Greek word threnoidia. It is a song of lamentation and commemorates a person or person�s death. Krzysztof Penderecki the Polish composer and conductor composed the post-titled Threnody for the Victims of Hiroshima, in 1961, which serves as a 20th-century example, which employed extended playing techniques for stringed instruments. Synonyms include �dirge�,�coronach�,�lament�, and �elegy�. Other composers have composed �Thrénodies�: one of the most notable being the Hungarian composer Franz Liszt who in his piano series Ann�"es de pèlerinage �Troisième anné� (title translates as �Third Year�. Published in 1883), composed two �Thrénodies� set at the Villa d�Este and entitled: Aux cypress de la Villa d�Este I: Thrénodie (To the Cypresses of the Villa d�Este I: Threnody): Aux cypress de la Villa d�Este II: (To the Cypresses of the Villa d�Este II: Threnody): The Villa d�Este in these two �Thrénodies� were describing a park in a Tivoli near Rome. It is famous for its beautiful cypresses and fountains. A threnody can also be defined as a song, hymn or poem taking its root from the Proto-Indo European wed �" (�to speak�) and its origins can be traced back to the golden age of Athens where the tragedies of Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripides are intoned, acted and recited to admiring throngs of people in Athens and in the most beautiful theatre at Epidaurus which is situated on the slopes of Mount Cynortium in the Peloponnesus. The �Epitaphios Threnos� is the lamentation chanted in the Eastern Orthodox Church on Holy Saturday. John Dryden commemorated the death of Charles II of England in the long poem �Threnodia Augustalis�, and Ralph Waldo Emerson wrote a �Threnody� in memory of his son. The Threnody for String Orchestra Op. 31 is in ternary form; a musical structure consisting of three parts or sections and ends with a short coda. It may be represented by the letter scheme ABA - CODA the final section with changes in orchestration being a repeat of the first. Each section is self-contained and the first section follows the usual practice of ending in the tonic key. To add a strong contrast in the middle section, which I have achieved by altering the note values and metre, and adding the tempo, instruction (meno mosso, �less moved�, i.e. slower) gives the impression on the contrary to a quickened and agitated feeling in the music. As I intimated earlier the first section reappears with its new distribution of voices in the overall structure of the work, which finally ends in a resigned and understated coda.

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MANNING, G. Wind Quintet No.1,Op.36 in E Flat Major for Flute, Oboe, Clarinet, Bassoon and Horn, MANNING, G - Symphony No.3 in D major, Op.34, MANNING, G - String Quartet No.2 in B flat Major, Op.32, MANNING, G. - Symphonic Poem - The Legend of Knockgrafton, Op.33 - for Vioces and Orchestra, MANNING, G - Concerto for Viola & Orchestra, Op.31, MANNING, G. - Chorale Cantata - The Nativity of Our Lord Op.27 - in 2 parts for Solo Soprano, Solo Tenor, Chorus & Orchestra, MANNING, G. - Symphony No. 2 in C minor - Sancti Benedicti Op.28, MANNING, G. - Three Shakespearian Sonnets - Op.30 - for Tenor, Horn & Strings, MANNING, G. - Romance with Double Bass - Opera Buffa in One Act & 5 Scenes, Op.26 - English Libretto by Gerald Manning after the short story by Anton Chekhov - Scenes - 4,5, MANNING, G. - Romance with Double Bass - Opera Buffa in One Act & 5 Scenes. Op.26 - English Libretto by Gerald Manning after the short story by Anton Chekhov - Scenes 1,2,3, MANNING, G. - The Legend of St. George, Op.25 - Tone Poem for Chorus & Orchestra, MANNING, G - String Quartet No.3 in G minor, Op.35, MANNING, G. - 'If It Should Be' Op.29 - for Soprano & String Quartet, MANNING, G. - Magnificat & Nunc Dimittis Op.6 - Latin Text - for Chamber Choir & String Quartet, MANNING, G. - Requiem for Chorus and Orchestra, Op.7, MANNING, G. - Symphony No.1 in F sharp Major, Op.14, MANNING, G. - Lament in G minor for String Orchestra Op.4, MANNING, G. - A Lament: O World! O life! O time! Op.11 - for Tenor & String Quartet, MANNING, G. - Arthurian Romances - 4 Symphonic Tableau for Orchestra Op.3, MANNING, G. - Sonata for Violin & Piano, Op.9 - in three movements complete, MANNING, G. - Sonata No.1 for Viola & Piano, Op.10 - in four movements - complete, MANNING, G. - Romance in A minor for Viola & Orchestra, Op.8, MANNING, G. - String Quartet No.1 in A minor, Op.12 - 3rd Movement, MANNING, G. - String Quartet, No.1 in A minor, Op 12.- 2nd movement, MANNING, G. - String Quartet, No.1 in A minor - Op.12 - 1st Movement, MANNING, G. - Divertissement for Oboe Violin & Viola Op.1, MANNING, G. - Symphonic Poem - Herculaneum, Op.13 - for orchestra & chorus, MANNING, G. - Perpetuum Mobile for Violin & Piano Op.2, MANNING, G. - Canzonetta for Violin & Piano Op.2 and MANNING, G.Concertino for Violin & Piano Op.2

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